How were Programming Language invented and Why ?

The hardware of a computer only understands 0 and 1: electricity or no electricity.
First problem: different hardware needs different 0’s an 1’s. Cue “computer architecture”, a structure that allows the processor to convert a simple instruction set (assembly or assembler) to the 0’s and 1’s that fit your hardware. For most computers this is x86, 32 or 64 bit.
Second problem: it’s pretty inconvenient to type whole programs in assembly language, since it supports only the most basic commands (add, multiply, loop). So programmers write in “higher programming languages”, which offer more complex structures and commands (classes, interfaces, …). Then the compiler converts all this to assembly matching the hardware. The high level program remains the same for all hardware!
Lastly there’s a big variation in high level programming languages. The differences here are because someone wants specific features for a certain niche. Java for example has its own mini-architecture “java virtual machine”, making it even easier to use on different hardware. PHP has smooth web-database interactions, C++ is made for OOP, … New languages arise when someone says “hmm I wish there was a language that combines x and y features”

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