What is Cryptography?

Look at this picture
Can you identify who it is ?
I think not!!!                          right ?
This is cryptography...
Where actual information is getting hided behind other means of data, so un-authorized user unable to identify what actually the message is
So there are several techniques/approaches followed across the organizations to hide the actual message
Cryptography is the study of keeping information hidden. Problems in cryptography generally address how to send information across some channel without other people seeing it? In the old days, this was much easier since you'd have a personal messenger, and as long as this person wasn't intercepted, your message was safe. Nowadays, messages are transmitted electronically through space, which means anyone could potentially eavesdrop. Modern cryptography studies how messages can be "encrypted" so that only the intended recipient can decipher the message.

This is used all the time, for example, when you log into your email. How does the email service verify that you entered the correct password for your username, without actually keeping a database of all username/password pairs? This is an example of a cryptography problem.

In simple words Cryptography is a combination of mathematics and security engineering. It offers a great tools which are used in all the modern security protocols. You can say, it is kind of a technology which enables the protection of distributed systems, and still it’s one of the thing which is somewhat hard to do it in a right manner.
Cryptography is quite related to two disciplines cryptology & cryptanalysis. Cryptography comes with some of the techniques like microdots, merging of words with images and other methods to hide information in a storage devices. Though in today's date, you can say that cryptography is like scrambling of plain text into cipher-text that no one can read it unless it's decrypted in order to keep the information hidden from the unauthorized person.
Today's cryptography comes with the following 4 objectives:
Confidentiality: Means the information can only be understood by the person for whom the information is.
Integrity: The information cannot be changed or intercepted between sender and receiver without the detection of the change is happening.
Non-Repudiation: The creator or sender of the data cannot say ‘No’ later on like this information is not transferred from their side.
Authentication: The sender or receiver can make confirmation of each other's identity & the origin from the information is sent or received.
This word Cryptography is derived from the Greek kryptos, means hidden. The main originality of cryptography is from about 2000 BC, during the time when hieroglyphics were practiced by Egyptian.
In today's date, cryptography plays a big role in the realms of mathematicians and computer scientists. The ability to securely transfer and store the critical information has played a big role in success of war as well business.
Cryptography has been in focus to several restrictions in different countries, as governments don't want their certain entities in and out of country to have access to certain confidential information’s that it could become a threat to national interests.
Though internet has adopted this mechanism in order to provide powerful programs safely to everyone, so this techniques of cryptography is mostly used for public domains.

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